"Bloody Mary" Tudor was the real virgin queen . . . and not Shake-peare!

The marriage of Prince Arthur to Catherine was arranged by King Henry VII and Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella. It was an Anglo-Spanish alliance against England's perennial rival France....The marriage was not about love . . . but about producing heirs to the throne.

Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales

On November 14, 1501, Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales, was married to Catherine of Aragon.

The bride was 15 and the groom was 14.

Royal marriages were strictly business contracts, unless they were signed by both parties they were invalid.

In that case, CONSUMATION of the marriage sealed the deal!


Catherine of Aragon

After the consumation of the marriage the bride and groom left together for Ludow Castle in Wales.

Ludlow Castle in Wales where the
newlyweds spent about 6 months.

The young couple spent almost 6 months together in Ludlow Castle.

On April 2, 1502, the Prince of Wales died of a mysterious illness!

After his death, Catherine should have returned to Spain, as the next in line for the throne was Arthur's brother Henry.



Tomb of Prince Arthur in
Worchester Cathedral.

That marriage was considered incestrous by the Holy Bible, so a special dispensation was issued by Pope Alexander VI.

King Henry VIII (1491–1547).
King Henry VIII (1491–1547).
King from 1509 to 1547.

Henry Tudor, Prince of Wales, married his dead brother's widow on June 11, 1509.

In 1527, Henry was anxious to marry Mary to Henry, Duke of Orleans.

Catherine of Aragon (1485–1536).
Catherine of Aragon (1485–1536).
Queen from 1509 to 1533.


King Henry VIII (1491–1547).
King Henry VIII (1491–1547).
King from 1509 to 1547.

Henry Tudor, Prince of Wales, married his dead brother's widow on June 11, 1509.

In 1527, Henry was anxious to marry Mary to Henry, Duke of Orleans.

Catherine of Aragon (1485–1536).
Catherine of Aragon (1485–1536).
Queen from 1509 to 1533.


The daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, Catherine was three years old when she was betrothed to Arthur, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the English throne. They married in 1501, but Arthur died five months later. She held the position of ambassador of the Aragonese Crown to England in 1507, the first female ambassador in European history.[1] Catherine subsequently married Arthur's younger brother, the recently ascended Henry VIII, in 1509. For six months in 1513, she served as regent of England while Henry VIII was in France. During that time the English won the Battle of Flodden, an event in which Catherine played an important part with an emotional speech about English courage.[2]


Henry II of France.


Charles V[a] (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon) from 1516, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506.




Then-15-year-old Catherine departed from A Coruña on 17 August 1501 and met Arthur on 4 November at Dogmersfield in Hampshire.[20][21][22] Little is known about their first impressions of each other, but Arthur did write to his parents-in-law that he would be "a true and loving husband" and told his parents that he was immensely happy to "behold the face of his lovely bride". The couple had corresponded in Latin, but found that they could not understand each other's spoken conversation, because they had learned different Latin pronunciations.[23] Ten days later, on 14 November 1501, they were married at Old St. Paul's Cathedral.[11] A dowry of 200,000 ducats had been agreed, and half was paid shortly after the marriage.[24]


Once married, Arthur was sent to Ludlow Castle on the borders of Wales to preside over the Council of Wales and the Marches, as was his duty as Prince of Wales, and his bride accompanied him. The couple stayed at Castle Lodge, Ludlow. A few months later, they both became ill, possibly with the sweating sickness, which was sweeping the area. Arthur died on 2 April 1502; 16-year-old Catherine recovered to find herself a widow.[






Arthur Tudor (19/20 September 1486 – 2 April 1502) was Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester and Duke of Cornwall. As the eldest son and heir apparent of Henry VII of England, Arthur was viewed by contemporaries as the great hope of the newly established House of Tudor. His mother, Elizabeth of York, was the daughter of Edward IV, and his birth cemented the union between the House of Tudor and the House of York.

The daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, Catherine was three years old when she was betrothed to Arthur, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the English throne. They married in 1501, but Arthur died five months later. She held the position of ambassador of the Aragonese Crown to England in 1507, the first female ambassador in European history.[1] Catherine subsequently married Arthur's younger brother, the recently ascended Henry VIII, in 1509. For six months in 1513, she served as regent of England while Henry VIII was in France. During that time the English won the Battle of Flodden, an event in which Catherine played an important part with an emotional speech about English courage.[2]

Plans for Arthur's marriage began before his third birthday; he was installed as Prince of Wales two years later. At the age of eleven, he was formally betrothed to Catherine of Aragon, a daughter of the powerful Catholic Monarchs in Spain, in an effort to forge an Anglo-Spanish alliance against France. Arthur was well educated and, contrary to some modern belief, was in good health for the majority of his life. Soon after his marriage to Catherine in 1501, the couple took up residence at Ludlow Castle in Shropshire, where Arthur died six months later of an unknown ailment. Catherine later firmly stated that the marriage had not been consummated.






All the children that Henry and Catherine had together died in infancy, except for a girl, Mary. Henry was very concerned with the perpetuation of the Tudor dynasty, and his male subjects did not consider it proper for England to be ruled by a female:

Daughters were of no use to the King. It was seen as against the laws of God and Nature for a woman to hold dominion over men, and so far England's only example of a female ruler had been the Empress Matilda, who briefly emerged triumphant from her civil war with King Stephen in 1141 and seized London. Yet so haughty and autocratic was she that the citizens speedily sent her packing, never to regain control of the kingdom. The whole disastrous episode merely served to underline the prevailing male view that women were not fit to rule. (Weir, The Lady in the Tower, p. 12).

Altogether, the couple had 7 children, with only 1 survivor, a daughter named Mary. In desperation, King Henry turned to the Bible for an answer to his "cursed marriage." Here is the Scripture he found:

Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother's wife: it is thy brother's nakedness (Leviticus 18:16).

What that Scripture is saying is: "do not commit incest or have sexual relations with your brother's wife." Henry decided to divorce Catherine and seek another queen who would give him a male heir.

Queen Anne Boleyn–the English Queen Esther!!

At his critical hour in world history, our Great JEHOVAH had a secret agent to rescue Henry from his unscriptural marriage and divorce England from Papal domination. Her name was Anne Boleyn and she was beautiful . . . and brainy.

In 1521, Anne Boleyn returned from a 5-year-stay at the French Court . . . burning with zeal to rescue her nation from Papal darkness.

The one story in the Hebrew Old Covenant that mirrors the story of Queen Anne Boleyn is found in the Book of Esther. According to that history, the Persian emperor Ahasuerus (Xerxes) had a quarrel with his wife, Queen Vashti.

The Persian Emperor decided to divorce his queen and look for another wife. To find a new wife, he held a beauty pagent throughout the entire Persian empire and the most beautiful maiden was chosen as his wife. Her name was Esther and she was a real Jew:

And the king loved Esther above all the women, and she obtained grace and favour in his sight more than all the virgins; so that he set the royal crown upon her head, and made her queen instead of Vashti (Esther 2:17).

After becoming the wife of the king, Queen Esther was used by JEHOVAH to spoil a plot by the devil to kill all the Jews in the Persian empire.

It was a most perilous time for the real Jews, who were threatened with extinction by a man named Haman. Queen Esther was advised by Mordecai to boldly go before the king and plead for the life of her people:

For if you remain completely silent at this time, relief and deliverance will arise for the Jews from another place, but you and your father’s house will perish. Yet who knows whether you have come to the kingdom for such a time as this? (Esther 4:14).

Like her Old Covenant counterpart Queen Esther, Queen Anne risked her life to tell Henry the good news of the Gospel of Christ. Cardinal Wolsey and Sir Thomas More were Haman-like characters, and her bitter enemy, as she sought to introduce the Reformation into England.

Anne first caught Henry's eye in 1523, when she returned from France, and became a lady-in-waiting at his Court. Henry was promiscuous, and tried to make Anne his mistress, but the virtuous maiden refused his advances, and stated that she would only have sex with her husband. Her refusal did not deter Henry, and he began the process to have his marriage to Catherine annulled, in order to make Anne his wife.

King Henry VIII circa 1536.
King Henry VIII circa 1536.

Pope Clement refused Henry an annulment because he was a puppet of Emperor Charles V.

After obtaining a divorce from the new Archbishop of Canterbury,Thomas Cranmer, Henry and Anne wed in 1533.

Despite her intellectual brilliance, Anne had to produce a male heir to continue the Tudor dynasty.

Queen Anne Boleyn (1501–1536).
Queen Anne Boleyn (1501–1536).
Queen from 1533–1536.

Queen Anne's survival at the court of King Henry demanded that she produce a male heir. Her first baby was a girl named Elizabeth:

The Queen's subsequent pregnancies had failed to produce the longed-for son. After the birth of the Princess Elizabeth in September 1533, Chapuys had written of the King, "God has forgotten him entirely." Anne quickly conceived again, but, in the summer of 1534, had borne probably a stillborn son at full term. So humiliating was this loss that no announcement of the birth was made, and the veil of secrecy surrounding the tragedy ensured that not even the sex of the infant was recorded, although we may infer from Chapuys's reference in 1536 to Anne's "utter inability to bear male children" that it was a boy. In the autumn of 1534, Anne thought she was pregnant again, but her hopes were premature. "The Lady is not to have a child after all," observed Chapuys gleefully. He would never refer to Anne as queen; for him, Katherine, the aunt of his master, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was Henry's rightful consort, and he could only regard Anne Boleyn as "the Lady" or "the Concubine," or even "the English Messalina or Agrippina."(Weir, The Lady in the Tower, p. 12).

The royal doctors that attended King Henry made sure that Queen Anne never gave birth to a male heir. This, plus her unequivocal support for the Reformation, led to her downfall and beheading.

The sinister Seymours engineered the downfall of Anne Boleyn!!

Sir John Seymour and Margary Wentworth were the parents of Henry's third wife, Jane Seymour. They were fanatical adherents to the "old religion" as they called it; they despised Anne Boleyn, and bitterly lamented the Suppression of the Monasteries . . . with their 700,000 deadly sins!!

Sir John Seymour
Sir John Seymour

Thanks to the "royal doctors", Queen Anne failed to produce a male heir.

That was her death sentence, and her executioners were the powerful Seymour family.

Their daughter, Jane, was cleverly advanced as a substitute queen to replace Anne Boleyn.

Margary Wentworth
Margary Wentworth

Queen Anne Boleyn was accused of the most outrageous crimes: incest with her brother, scheming to poison the king, adultery with all the men in her court:

Furthermore, they being thus inflamed by carnal love of the Queen, and having become very jealous of each other, did, in order to secure her affections, satisfy her inordinate desires; and that the Queen was equally jealous of the Lord Rochford, and other the before-mentioned traitors that she would not allow them to hold any familiarity with any other woman without exhibiting her exceeding displeasure and indignation. Moreover, the said Lord Rochford, Norris, Brereton, Weston, and Smeaton, being thus inflamed with carnal love of the Queen, and having become very jealous of each other, gave her secret gifts and pledges while carrying on this illicit intercourse; and the Queen, on her part, would not allow them to show familiarity with any other women without her exceeding displeasure and indignation. (Weir, The Lady in the Tower, p. 191).

Then, as now, the more outrageous the lies, the more people will believe them!

Anne Boleyn in the Tower by Edouard Cibot (1799–1877).
Anne Boleyn in the Tower by Edouard Cibot (1799–1877).

Queen Anne Boleyn was BEHEADED in the Tower of London on May 19, 1536.

Queen Anne was an accomplished musician and a very talented poet.

Very little of her poetry has survived except in the works of William Shake-speare.

Queen Anne just before her beheading in 1536.
Queen Anne just before her beheading in 1536.

Here is a small sample of the poetry of Queen Anne Boleyn, written when she was in the Tower, awaiting her execution by beheading:

Defiled is my name full sore Through cruel spite and false report,
That I may say for evermore,
Farewell, my joy! Adieu comfort!
For wrongfully ye judge of me
Unto my fame a mortal wound,
Say what ye list, it will not be,
Ye seek for that can not be found.

Ring out my doleful knell;
Thy sound my death abroad will tell,
For I must die,
There is no remedy.
Alone, alone in prison strong
I wail my destiny:
Woe worth this cruel hap that I
Must taste this misery!
Toll on, thou passing bell;
Ring out my doleful knell;
Thy sound my death abroad will tell,
For I must die,
There is no remedy.
O Death, O Death, rock me asleepe,
Bring me to quiet rest;
Let pass my weary guiltless ghost
Out of my careful breast.
Toll on, thou passing bell;
My pains, my pains, who can express?
Alas, they are so strong!
My dolours will not suffer strength
My life for to prolong.
Toll on, thou passing bell;
Ring out my doleful knell;
Thy sound my death abroad will tell,
For I must die,
There is no remedy.
Farewell, farewell, my pleasures past!
Welcome, my present pain!
I feel my torment so increase
That life cannot remain.
Cease now, thou passing bell,
Ring out my doleful knoll,
For thou my death dost tell:
Lord, pity thou my soul!
Death doth draw nigh,
Sound dolefully:
For now I die,
I die, I die.

Henry's love letters to Anne Boleyn are in the Secret Archives of the Vatican, so perhaps the rest of the works of this prolific poet are also there.

Jane Seymour supplanted Anne Boleyn as queen!!

Immediately after the beheading of Anne Boleyn, Henry wed Jane Seymour. The sinister Seymours were one of the most powerful families in England . They considered that they had as much right to the throne as the Tudors. The Seymours were a prolific family, having 10 children, with 6 surviving.

Edward Seymour
Edward Seymour

Edward and Thomas were the brothers of Jane Seymour.

They were political animals, well versed in court intrigue, and were determined to replace the Tudor dynasty with a Seymour dynasty.

Thomas was dashing and handsome, and known as Admiral Seymour.

Thomas Seymour
Thomas Seymour

King Henry married plain Jane Seymour on June 30, 1539. She quickly became pregnant . . . but died in childbirth while giving birth to a son.

Jane Seymour (1508–1537).
Jane Seymour (1508–1537).
Queen from 1536 to 1537.

Jane's scheme to replace Queen Anne did not last long. She died in childbirth on October 12, 1537, giving birth to a son by C-section.

King Henry went to meet his Maker on January 28, 1547, and Edward Seymour became Regent and de facto ruler of England.

Edward could not reign until he reached the age of majority at 18.

Edward Tudor
Edward Tudor

After the death of King Henry in 1548. a tug of war developed between the 2 Seymours for control of Edward Tudor. One of the many fatal flaws in the monarchial system is the fact that a child can inherit the throne:

Woe to thee, O land, when they king is a child, and thy princes feast in the morning (Ecclesiastes 10: 16).

Edward Tudor was a child prodigy; he was called the English "King Josiah" and would have finished the Reformation so nobly begun by Queen Anne. The young king, with so much promise, died of poisoning when he was just 15 years old!!

Thomas Seymour seduced 14-year-old Elizabeth Tudor!!

After the death of King Henry in 1547, Admiral Thomas Seymour married Catherine Parr—widow of King Henry VIII.

Admiral Thomas Seymour.
Admiral Thomas Seymour.

Catherine Parr was the 6th and last wife of Henry VIII.

Just 4 months after the king's death, Thomas Seymour married Catherine.

This was considered improper timing as Catherine might still be pregnant by the king.

Catherine Parr
Catherine Parr

Elizabeth Tudor was invited to live with them in Chelsea Manor House, London.

Admiral Thomas Seymour was 39 when he married the king's widow. He moved into Chelsea Manor House, which was given to Catherine Parr as a wedding present by the late king. Then the Seymours invited the future Queen Elizabeth I to live with them. Here is what happened next:

From the start Thomas's behaviour towards Elizabeth overstepped the mark of what was deemed appropriate for a stepfather and stepdaughter. Kat Ashley reported that he would 'come many mornings into the Lady Elizabeth's chamber, before she were ready, and sometimes before she did rise. And if she were up, he would bid her good morrow, and ask how she did, and strike her upon the back or on the buttocks familiarly, and so go forth through his lodgings; and sometime go through to the maidens and play with them, and so go forth.' (Jones, Elizabeth: Virgin Queen?, pp. 46-47).

When Catherine became pregnant and could not watch them carefully, he threw off all restraint:

As Catherine's pregnancy advanced, she spent more time resting. She no longer accompanied her husband when he visited Elizabeth, yet, one day in May or June 1548, Catherine made a discovery, according to Thomas Parry's evidence in the Seymour enquiry. Parry testified that Thomas loved Elizabeth and had done so for a long time and that Catherine was jealous of that fact. (Jones, Elizabeth: Virgin Queen?, pp. 49-50).

Elizabeth became pregnant in Chelsea Manor House, London.

Chelsea Manor House, London,
Chelsea Manor House, London,

Even though the lecherous Seymour was married to Catherine Parr, that did not prevent him from pursuing 14-year-old Elizabeth Tudor.

Elizabeth became pregnant sometime in May or June 1548, and was quickly moved to a more discreet location.


Elizabeth Tudor
Elizabeth Tudor

When it became obvious that Elizabeth was pregnant, she was moved to the country home of Sir Anthony Denny and his wife, Joan Champernowne.

Sir Anthony Denny
Sir Anthony Denny

Sir Anthony and Lady Joan sheltered Elizabeth during her pregnancy.

Her baby was probably born in late 1549.

Sir Anthony obviously had "loose lips" so he had a timely demise.

Joan Champernowne
Joan Champernowne
(c. 1509–1553) .

The cunning and powerful Seymour family protected Elizabeth. The front man for operation "Virgin Queen" was Sir William Cecil, later named Lord Burghley.

Edward de Vere was the firstborn of Elizabeth Tudor!!

The baby boy who was born to Elizabeth in late 1549 was "adopted" by the powerful Counter-Reformation Earls of Oxford. The "adoption" was facilitated by Sir William Cecil, who later became the puppetmaster for Queen Elizabeth.

William Cecil
Sir William Cecil

Elizabeth's son and Catherine Seymour's daughter Mary were placed with the de Vere family.

This "adoption" was facilitated by Sir William Cecil.

Sir William Cecil (Lord Burghley) later became the puppermaster for the marionette Queen Elizabeth.

William Cecil (L) with Francis Walsingham and Queen Elizabeth.
William Cecil (L) with Francis Walsingham
and Queen Elizabeth.

When Elizabeth finally became queen in 1558, Sir William Cecil became her chief advisor. Elizabeth could do anything she wanted provided she cooperated with Cecil and the Seymours.

No image of John de Vere
No image of John de Vere
is currently available.

Elizabeth's son was adopted by the powerful de Vere family.

The Earls of Oxford patronized an acting company known as the Oxford Players.

This traveling group of actors was the perfect cover for spies.

No image of Margery Golding
No image of Margery Golding
is currently available.

After the birth of her son, Elizabeth returned to London to answer questions about her relationship with Thomas Seymour.

The Lord Protector, Edward Seymour, knew all about the birth but he kept it a secret. His brother Thomas was sent to the block and beheaded for trying to abduct King Edward. Supposedly, the boy king's dog barked and foiled the attempt!!

With the help of William Cecil, Elisabeth survived the reign of her sister Bloody Mary, and was crowned queen on November 17, 1558.

Edward de Vere (1549–1604),
Edward de Vere (1549–1604),
firstborn of Queen Elizabeth I.


John de Vere officiated at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth I in 1553.

In 1562, Edward was made a Ward of the Crown, and lived with William Cecil in London.

The cerebral Edward graduated with a Master's Degree from Cambridge in 1564, and a Master's Degree from Oxford in 1566.

Queen Elizabeth I.
Queen Elizabeth I.
Reigned from 1553 to 1603.

Edward trained as a lawyer at the Inns of Court and it could be truly said that he was a polymath and a true Renaissance man. Edward was fluent in French, Italian, Spanish, Latin, Greek, and possibly Hebrew.

Since the 1920s he has been the most popular alternative candidate proposed for the authorship of "Shake-speare's" works.

Elizabeth was also a brilliant intellectual, having inherited her mother's brains . . . but her father's promiscuousness.

Admiral Seymour tried to steal California from the New Jerusalem!!

It would take volumes to catalog the crimes of the sinister Seymour dynasty. In July 1846, the British Pacific Squadron, commanded by Admiral Sir George Seymour, lay waiting to seize California from the United States.

HMS Collingwood off the
HMS Collingwood off the
coast of California.

Admiral Seymour commanded a 15-squadron fleet from his flagship HMS Collingwood.

Seizing the richest land on the face of the earth was his mission!!

California gold would have realized his dream of restoring his family's lost fortunes in Britain.

Admiral Sir George Seymour
Admiral Sir George Seymour


Momentous events, that would shape the world until the end of time, were planned right on that ship. If the United States lost California, that would have meant the end of the experiment in popular government.

The wardroom of HMS Collingwood.
The wardroom of HMS Collingwood.

If only the Collingwood''s table could talk!!

Momentous events were planned between Admiral Seymour and Irish Jesuit priest Eugene Macnamara.

The discussion was all about dividing up California between the Papal Irish and the British Mormons.

Wardroom table from
Wardroom table from
HMS Collingwood.

Here is a brief quote about that history changing event:

On July 19th the livening town of Monterey, which had never known such international attention, saw a squadron of 120 trappers, Frémont at their head, ride through to encamp on the heights above, among the pines "where the July sun made the sea-breeze and the shade welcome." They were there at the request of Sloat and Larkin to protect settlers against marauding Indians from the San Joaquin Valley. "Many of my men had never seen the ocean or the English flag. They looked on HMS Collingwood with the feeling of the racer who has just passed the winning post. Three nations were represented in those quiet streets." Toward the end of the admiral's week in Monterey, when Macnamara was in the wardroom, Captain Frémont and Marine Lieutenant Gillespie in "blouse and leggings" came aboard. Frémont later denied that real trappers wore such impractical costumes, only those in paintings. Their conversation with the British officers and the Irish priest should have been awkward, if their role in California was to save Manifest Destiny from these same British agents. A decanter and glass combined with the courtesies of a gentrified Royal Navy might have lightened the meeting, which may have been the first time Frémont had actually heard of the Irish colonization project. (Fox, Macnamara's Irish Colony and the United States Taking of California, p. 156).

And what a race it was to keep California out of the hands of the sinister Seymours and their British Empire.

The Seymours and the Spencers!!

The Seymour dynasty continues right down to 2014....In 1615, Lord Spencer married Penelope Wriothesley, daughter of Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton. Here is a quote from Wikipedia:

William Spencer, 2nd Baron Spencer of Wormleighton (christened 4 January 1591 – 19 December 1636) was an English peer from the Spencer family.

Spencer was the son of Robert Spencer, 1st Baron Spencer of Wormleighton, and his wife, Margaret Willoughby, and was baptised on 4 January 1591 at Brington, Northamptonshire. He attended Magdalen College, Oxford, and became a Member of Parliament for Brackley in 1614, for Northamptonshire (1620–22 & 1624–27). From 6 May 1618 to 1621, Spencer held the office of Deputy Lieutenant of Northamptonshire. On 25 October 1627, he succeeded to the title of 2nd Baron Spencer of Wormleighton.

Lord Spencer married Lady Penelope Wriothesley, daughter of Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, in 1615. He died in December 1636, aged 45, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Henry, who was created Earl of Sunderland in 1643. Lord Spencer's second son the Honourable Robert was created Viscount Teviot in 1685.

Lady Diana Spencer, the mother of Prince William and Prince Harry, was a descendent of Lord Spencer:

Edward John "Johnnie" Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer, MVO (24 January 1924 – 29 March 1992), styled Viscount Althorp until 1975, was a British peer and the father of Diana, Princess of Wales.


Denny, Joanna. Anne Boleyn: A New Life of England's Tragic Queen. De Capo Press, New York, 2004.

Frémont John Charles. Memoirs of My Life. Cooper Square Press, New York, 2001. (First published in 1886).

Fox, John. Macnamara's Irish Colony and the United States Taking of California in 1846. McFarland & Co., Pub., Jefferson, North Carolina, and London, 2000.

Furdell, Elizabeth Lane. The Royal Doctors 14851714. Medical Personnel at the Tudor and Stuart Courts. University of Rochester Press, 2001.

Jones, Philippa. Elizabeth: Virgin Queen? Metro Books, New York, 2011.

Streitz, Paul. Oxford: Son of Queen Elizabeth. Oxford Institute Press. Darien, CT. 2001.

Weir, Alison. The Lady in the Tower: The Fall of Anne Boleyn. Ballantine Books, New York, 2011.

Vital links


Copyright © 2014 by Patrick Scrivener

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