Saint Paul—the founder of the Christian Congregation at Roma—said that all the events in the Old Covenant were divinely preordained to symbolize events that would come to pass before the end of time:

Now all of those events happened unto them as examples; and they were written for our admonition, upon who the ends of the world are come (I Corinthians 10:11).

According to the Biblical story of Samson and Delilah, history will have a very "HAIRY" ending!

The name CAESAR means HAIRY. It is an old Latin name whose origin is lost in the mists of time. Some surmise that it is derived from Mount Seir which was the dwelling place of Esau the "Hairy One" (Genesis 36:8)....Tsar is CAESAR in Russian and KAISER in German.

Alessandro Mussolini (18541910).

Benito Mussolini was named after Benito Juárez who drove the troops of Napollyon III out of Mexico in 1867.

His younger brother was named after Arnold of Brescia (10901155), an Augustinian monk who was the precursor of Girolamo Savonarola (14521498).

The naming of their children is infallible proof that the parents were vehemently opposed to the restoration of the Papal States.


Rosa Mussolini (18581905).

Here is a quote from a biography of Pope Pius XI and the Sawdust Caesar:

Achille Ratti was already a twenty-six year old priest when Mussolini was born in 1883. Romagna was then the epicenter of Italy's anarchist and socialist movements, and Benito's father, Alessandro, a bigmouthed blacksmith, eagerly preached his revolutionary faith to any who would listen. He named his son after Benito Juárez, the impoverished Indian who became Mexico's president, scourge of Europe's colonial powers, and enemy of the Church. He named Benito's younger brother, Arnaldo, after Arnaldo of Brescia, a priest who led an uprising that drove the pope from Rome in 1146 and was later hanged. (Kertzer, The Pope and Mussolini, p. 19).

Children are supposed to look like their parents....In the case of the real Benito Mussolini he looked more like his mother Rosa.

Rosa holding baby Benito
(b. July 29, 1883).

Very few authentic photos of the real Benito Mussolini exist.

There is a photo of mother and child, and another photo of Benito Mussolini as a soldier in the Bersaglieri.

On February 23, 1917, Benito Mussolini was killed in action with 4 other soldiers!


Benito Mussolini (18831917)
as a soldier in the Bersagliere.

When Italy started to lose to the Allies in North Africa, Mussolini was nicknamed the "Sawdust Caesar." The only thing that he had in common with Julius Caesar was the fact that he always wrote everything down....Here is a quote from his autobiography:

On the morning of February 23, 1917, during a bombardment of the enemy trenches in Section 144—the sector of the hard-pressed Carso under the heaviest shellfire—there happened one of these incidents which was a daily occurrence in trench life. One of our own grenades burst in our trench among about twenty of our soldiers. We were covered with dirt and smoke, and torn by metal. Four died, various others were fatally wounded. (Mussolini, My Rise and Fall, p. 48).

All the other biographers of "Mussolini" claim that 5 soldiers were killed:

Mussolini's military career—and his articles from the front line—were brought to an abrupt end by a fairly serious accident in battle, as was reported in every newspaper in Italy, and also by some abroad. On 23rd February, 1917, during some troop exercises, a grenade exploded next to him. Five Bersagliere were killed on the spot. Mussolini had dozens of shrapnel wounds and was taken to the hospital. (Olla, IL Duce and His Women, p. 160).

During the Great War Italy suffered over 625,000 dead and over 1,000,000 wounded. 5 soldiers killed in the trenches would not have made the headlines except for the fact that there were at least 2 Mussolini impersonators.

There were 2 Benito Mussolini impersonators prior to WWI

A Mussolini impersonator was arrested in Switzerland in 1903 as a "Socialist" agitator. That Mussolini had a full head of hair and a mustache.

Mugs shots of a Mussolini impersonator
taken in Switzerland in 1903.

Mug shots of a Mussolini impersonator were taken in Switzerland in 1903.

That was when he was supposed to have met Vladimir Lenin and established his "Bolshevik" credentials.

1903 to 1910 was only 7 years, and not enough time for "Mussolini" to lose so much hair!


A Mussolini double as editor of the
Socialist Party newspaper
Avanti in 1910.

The "hairy" mug shot "Mussolini" would have been the ideal choice for the future Sawdust Caesar, but he probably didn't survive the WWI holocaust.

Most men are self-conscious about premature baldness . . . and it was not the water or the climate in Switzerland that caused him to lose his hair.

Lord Curzon

In October 1919, "Mr. British Empire" Lord Curzon appointed Sir George Buchanan to the position of ambassador to Italy.

In 1917, working from the British embassy in St. Petersburg, Sir George Buchanan engineered the Bolshevik Revolution and the rise of dictator Vladimir Lenin.

In Italy his mission was to engineer an anti-Bolshevik Revolution using the Mussolini impersonator.

That was an easy assignment because the British Secret Service has been "nuts" about doubles for the past 400 years.

Sir George Buchanan

The Sawdust Caesar marching on Roma can be compared to Julius Caesar crossing the Rubicon.....There was no turning back to the halcyon days that united Italy enjoyed since September 1870.

The Mussolini double marching on Roma,
March 1922.

That actor was completely miscast to play the role of the Sawdust Caesar.

He was almost bald when he was appointed prime minister in 1922.

One thing his many Fascist lovers could not do was run their fingers through his hair!

The bald Il Duce sitting behind his desk.

The "conversion" of Benito Mussolini from "Socialist" agitator to "Father of Fascism" was viewed by many Italian Catholics as his "Damascus Road Experience."

Wlodimir Ledochowski, S.J.

Militia of Jesus Wlodimir Ledochowski was Jesuit general during WWI.

He was bitterly disappointed by the miraculous victory of the New Jerusalem over the Second Reich.

Pietro Tacchi Venturi was the general's liaison with the Sawdust Caesar.


Pietro Tacchi Venturi, S.J.

As far as the Italian people were concerned the Lateran Treaty was top secret but it received banner headlines in the Hearst owned newspapers in the United States.

Pope Pius XI (1857–1939).
Pope from 1922 to 1939.

In February 1929, Sawdust Caesar Benito Mussolini signed the Lateran Accords on behalf of King Victor Emmanuel III.

The Accords gave the Pope 110 acres (0.44 square km) which became known as Vatican City State.

Italy now had 3 rulers: Pope Pius XI, Victor Emmanuel III, and the Mussolini impersonator.


The Mussolini double signed the Lateran Accords
on February 11, 1929.

Hitler visited Roma in May 1938 but his timing was atrocious....In March, the Führer annexed Austria to the Third Reich. Austria was considered part of the Italian sphere of influence and the Italians were not very pleased that their former enemy was once more part of the resurrected Reich.

Hitler visiting the Sawdust Caesar in Roma,
May 1938.

Nazism was an import from Fascist Italy but Hitler was not about to play second fiddle to Il Duce.

As Führer of the Third Reich, Hitler was actually "Kaiser."

Additionally, Hitler had a lot more hair that the Sawdust Caesar.


A bald
Il Duce standing
next to "hairy" Hitler.

Hitler's visit was a public relations success but deep difference existed between the Fascist and Nazi dictators.

Funeral of Pope Pius XI, February 14, 1939.

On the 10th anniversary of the signing of the Lateran Accords, Pope Pius XI planned to make a speech condemning Nazism.

He never made the speech because he was sent to "Purgatory" on February 10.

He was succeeded by his secretary of state, the imperious Eugenio Pacelli, who took the name Pius XII in "honor" of his predecessor!


Pope Pius XII (1876–1958).
Pope from 1939 to 1958.

Pacelli was an ardent Nazi and totally committed to the Third Reich. His "housekeeper" was a very pretty Bavarian nun named Mother Pasqualina. She ruled the Vatican with an iron fist and nobody saw the Pope without her approval.

Waffen SS colonel Otto Skorzeny rescued the Sawdust Caesar from captivity!!

After Stalingrad and Kursk, the Sawdust Caesar urged Hitler to make peace with Stalin. He was not aware that the Nazis were working on nuclear weapons and they were supremely confident that their "Miracle Weapon" would turn defeat into victory!

Colonel Skorzeny with a frightened and
glad to be "rescued" Il Duce.

On September 12, 1943, the Sawdust Caesar was "rescued" from his mountaintop prison by commandos led by Waffen SS officer Otto Skorzeny.

From that time onward he was just a puppet of the Nazis who ruled northern Italy. With plenty of time on his hands he finished his autobiography.

The Mussolini double visited Hitler on the afternoon of the July 20 bomb plot and was awestruck by his survival.


The Il Duce double marveled
at the survival of Hitler.

Little did the Il Duce realize that Hitler had a least 5 doppelgängers.

Like the real Julius Caesar, the Sawdust Caesar was in the habit of writing everything down. That was anathema to Winston Churchill who wanted no evidence linking him to the creation of Fascist Italy.

Winston Churchill did not want Mussolini to survive and tell-all at his trial!

Fascist Italy was really the exemplar or precursor to Nazi Germany, so it is amazing that Mussolini and his mistress were not "suicided" and then bundled off into retirement in Argentina.

Iconic photo of Mussolini and his mistress hanging upside down.
Iconic photo of Mussolini and his
mistress hanging upside down.

On April 29, 1945, the Mussolini double, his mistress Claretta Petacci, and 15 other Fascists were displayed hanging upside down on meat hooks in Milan's Piazzale Loretto.

That was just 8 days before the war ended with the official surrender of Nazi Germany to Russia on May 9, 1945.

Some of the Fascists who were hung upside down in Milan's Piazzale Loretto.
Photo of the Fascists hanging upside
down in Milan's Piazzale Loretto.

"Communist" partisans were blamed for the murder of the Sawdust Caesar and his mistress. The double had many chances to escape to Switzerland, but he knew that surrender to U.S. General Mark Clark, with his top secret Churchill correspondence, could possibly save his neck from the hangman's noose . . . or a firing squad!

British spy Peter Tompkins
British spy Peter Tompkins

Peter Tompkins worked for the U.S. OSS (OH! So Stupid).

Up to 1945, Tompkins worked in the North of Italy for the parent British organization known as SOE (Special Operations Executive).

SS General Karl Wolff was Hitler's spymaster and together with Tompkins he coordinated the assassination of the Mussolini double.

SS general Karl Wolff
SS general Karl Wolff

In August 1946, Churchill arrived in the British Crown Colony of Switzerland for a 3-week "vacation." In reality, he was there to retrieve any copies of Mussolini's diaries and their top secret correspondence.

Churchill arriving in Zurich Station,
Churchill arriving in Zurich Station,
August 29, 1946.

Churchill's party lost the 1945 general election so he had to resign as prime minister.

In August 1946, freed from the glare of publicity, he decided to take a "vacation" in Switzerland.

Incredibly, in 1868, Winston's grandma Queen Victoria visited Lucerne, Switzerland, incognito, to "lose weight" and do some "painting."

One of Churchill's 1946
One of Churchill's 1946
Lake Como paintings.

The real reason for the visit was to collect and destroy all the incriminating correspondence with the Sawdust Caesar. Churchill was still hounded by photographers who used ingenious methods to get close to his boat on Lake Como:

These multiple copies (photocopies and typed copies) of the papers prompted Churchill, after the war, to spend time first at Lake Como, staying at the Villa Apraxin at Moltrasio (the location of British army headquarters); and later on Lake Garda, where he spent longer periods on the lakefront at Villa Gemma (the same villa where Biggini had left copies of the documents the Duce had entrusted him with); and finally on Lake Lugano, at Osteno, on the Italian side, which could easily be reached from the Swiss side across the way. No one believed the "official" reason given for the strange vacations of the victor of the Second World War–to pass the time painting landscapes. The independent press (the Swiss newspapers, for example) was the first to turn it into a joke in cartoons where Churchill was shown throwing papers into a fireplace. (Garibaldi, Mussolini: The Secrets of His Death, p. 64).

His "vacation" must have been a success because all copies of the damning Mussolini-Churchill correspondence have disappeared.

Vatican City State had 183 accredited ambassadors!!

It is beyond belief but the independent state known as Vatican City State has 183 accredited ambassadors. The New Jerusalem established diplomatic relations in 1984.

That means that each country has 2 ambassadors from Roma. One ambassador represents the Italian Republic, while the other ambassador represents Vatican City State.

The Quirinal Palace is the official residence
of the President of the Italian Republic.

The Quirinal Palace is the official residence of the President of the Italian Republic. He is elected for 7 years.

The SPQR Republic elected 2 consuls for 1 year only because they couldn't trust men in office for longer periods.

Vatican City State is the official residence of the Pope and he is elected for life!


Panoramic view of Vatican City State.

Having 2 ambassadors representing Roma is bound to lead to mass confusion....Vatican ambassadors must be Catholics, and most Italian ambassadors are Catholics who believe that furthering the agenda of the Church Militant will shorten their time in "Purgatory!"

Vital links


Bosworth, R.J. B. Mussolini. Oxford University Press, New York, 2002.

Garibaldi, Luciano. Mussolini: The Secrets of His Death. Enigma Books, New York, 2004.

Hibbert, Christopher. Il Duce: The Life of Benito Mussolini. Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1962.

Kertzer, David I. The Pope and Mussolini. The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe. Random House, New York, 2014.

Mussolini, Benito. My Rise and Fall, Da Capo Press, New York, 1998. First published in 1948 under the title The Fall of Mussolini.

Olla Roberto. Il Duce and His Women. Alma Books Ltd., Richmond, Surrey, UK.

Smith, Denis Mack. Mussolini. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1982.

Copyright © 2022 by Patrick Scrivener

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