The British Secret Service has been spying on Mother Russia for centuries, but after the Fall of the Papal States the spying became overt and intense. The Russian equivalent to the U.S. Secret Service was called the Okhrana.

Tsar Alexander II was one of the greatest Tsars in the Romanov dynasty. He was close friends with the Prussian King Wilhelm I and Bismarck. During the Franco-Prussian War, he warned Austria not to help France, and this led to the Fall of the Papal States and the unification of Italy . . . and Germany!!

Tsar Alexander II (1818–1881).
Tsar Alexander II (1818–1881).
Tsar from 1855 to 1881.

Tsar Alexander II saved the Union from a British invasion during the Civil War.

In 1867, he sold Alaska to the United States!!

On March 13, 1881, the Tsar was literally blown apart by a powerful explosive thrown by a suicide bomber.



The Tsar was literally blown apart by a powerful bomb.
The Tsar was literally blown
apart by a powerful bomb.

His son, Tsarevitch Alexander, arrived on the scene shortly thereafter and saw his father's mangled body.

Alexander II was the most successful Russian reformer since Peter the Great. His most important achievement was the emancipation of the serfs in 1861, for which he became known as Alexander the Liberator. The Tsar was responsible for numerous other reforms including reorganizing the judicial system, setting up elected local judges, abolishing capital punishment, promoting local self-government through the zemstvo system, imposing universal military service, ending some of the privileges of the nobility, and promoting the universities.

Just before his assassination, he was about to grant his people even more liberty:

At last, on the day after the discovery of a new Nihilist plot, on Sunday morning, March 13, just before leaving to attend the parade, from which he was to be brought back a mangled mass of flesh and bones, he actually sent to the Minister of the Interior an order for announcing the important reform in which he intended to surprise and beatify his subjects. " I have just signed a paper," said the Tsar to his new consort, Princess Yuriefski, a few minutes before leaving the Winter Palace, " which I hope will produce a good impression upon Russia, and show that I am ready to give her all that it is possible to give." And then he added, crossing himself, as was his wont on solemn occasions, To-morrow it will be published; I have given the order." (Lowe, Alexander III of Russia, pp. 56-57).

The Tsar was succeeded by his oldest surviving son, Alexander Alexandrovich. The Tsar had an older son, Tsarevich Nicholas, who died of poisoning in France.

Tsarevich Nicholas
Tsarevich Nicholas

Alexander's oldest son was named Nicholas. As the first in line to the throne, he was called Tsarevich.

Nicholas (Niks) was engaged to Princess Dagmar of Denmark.

Nicholas died from poisoning on April 12, 1865, just a few days before the assassination of President Lincoln.


Engagement photo of Tsarevich Nicholas with Princess Dagmar of Denmark.
Engagement photo of Tsarevich Nicholas with Princess Dagmar of Denmark.

All the hopes of Alexander rested in his beloved son and heir Nicholas:

Alexander not only had no interest in literature, he had no time for it. In 1865, he suffered a personal tragedy that became a tragedy for the country. He and his wife adored their son Niks, the heir to the throne. The handsome and incredibly gifted young man was a true European in his convictions and was to continue his father's reforms. His teachers called him "Russia's hope," "a brilliant young man," "a flexible and subtle intelligence fervently responding to everything new." Everyone loved him. "The crown of perfection" was what Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich called him. His huge and clumsy brother, Sasha, loved him with touching fidelity. (Radzinsky, Alexander III: The Last Great Tsar, p. 166).

Before his death, Nicholas expressed a wish that his fiancée become the bride of his younger brother Alexander (Sasha), and successor as Tsarevich.

Tsar Alexander III
Tsar Alexander III

The new Tsarevich Alexander married Marie Feodorovna in 1866.

Maria was the former Princess Dagmar of Denmark. She was the real power behind the throne and outlived the Russian Revolution.

The Tsar had no secret police and during his 13-year reign he lived in fear of assassination.

Marie Feodorovna
Marie Feodorovna

Even though he was a giant of a man, he did not possess his father's courage and he lived in fear of assassination. He was also dominated by the strong-willed Marie Feodorovna. Whenever he traveled through the vast Russian empire he relied on the Cossacks for protection.

The Okhrana was created during the reign of Tsar Alexander III

The British branch of the Russian Secret Service was created in 1887. The Department for the Protection of Order and Public Safety was better known by its acronym, Okhrana:

Every day the Tsar worked through mountains of state papers, scrawling blunt comments, not always polite, in the margins, The country had become a police state and corruption was rife. The police controlled the internal passport system and a new police division, the Okhrana was established. Their undercover agents intercepted letters, infiltrated organisation and collected evidence against those suspected of subversion. Nevertheless, capital punishment was only in force for crimes involving terrorism and assassination. (Hall, Little Mother of Russia, pp. 136-137).

The sinister, reactionary Konstantin Pobyedonostsyev was the main advisor to Tsar Alexander. He was known as the "Black Tsar" because of his dark countenance and dour disposition. He can be rightfully called the "Father" of the Okhrana.

Konstantin Pobyedonostsyev (1827–1907).
Konstantin Pobyedonostsyev (1827–1907).

Konstantin Pobyedonostsyev was the equivalent of John Wilkie in the United States.

Pobyedonostsyev was the Ober-Procurator of the Holy Synod, or overseer of the Orthodox Church!!

Pyotr Rachkovskyan agent provocateur–was stationed in Paris from 1885 to 1902.

Pyotr Rachkovsky
Pyotr Rachkovsky

Pobyedonostsyev was a shrewd lawyer who knew well the dire implications that an atheistic regime would have on Orthodox Russia . . . and the entire world!!

Rachkovsky worked in Paris, Geneva, and Rome. In Rome he worked to establish diplomatic relations between the Vatican and Russia. His attempt to supplant the Orthodox Church with the Latin Church ended in abysmal failure.

The Russian branch of the British Secret Service didn't do such a good job at "protecting" the Tsar because his entire family was almost killed in a train wreck.

Former Christ the Saviour
Former Christ the Saviour
Cathedral in Borki.

In October 1888, the Tsar and his family were returning from a visit to the Caucasus when their train was derailed and 21 people were killed and 37 injured.

The Tsar and his family had a miraculous escape.

A cathedral was constructed on the spot but was later demolished by the "Soviets."

1888 Russian Imperial train 1888 Russian Imperial train
wreck in Borki.

After seeing his father mangled by a bomb, the near escape had a horrifying effect on the Tsar . . . and Tsarina:

In the following year Europe was shuddered on hearing that the special train in which the Imperial family were returning home from the south of Russia had been completely wrecked in a deep cutting near a place called Borki, while rushing along at about sixty-four versts an hour. Of all who were travelling by the train twenty-one were killed and thirty-seven injured. The Tsar himself had a most miraculous escape, his saloon carriage being terribly wrecked; while the Empress also was only save by little more than a hair's breath. (Lowe, Alexander III of Russia, pp. 257-258).

All the common people in Russia gave thanks to the Almighty for sparing the life of their Tsar. The Tsar was a very moral and upright man and was genuinely concerned for the welfare of all his people.
Tsar Alexander III succumbed to poison in 1894

The many attempts on his life caused the Tsar to become more remote from his people. His attempted murder in the train wreck having failed, his doctors finally managed to poison him:

When the Emperor himself began to feel the presence of the shadow of the hand of Death we shall probably never know. But is is probable that the course of his fatal malady began toward the end of 1889, when he fell a victim to the influenza; and, on the other hand, the door to this disease was probably opened by the terrible shock to his nervous system which he experienced at the railway accident of Borki in the previous year. (Lowe, Alexander III of Russia, p. 275).

Alexander was succeeded by his 26-year-old son Nicholas. The new Tsar was woefully unprepared to assume rulership of the largest country in the world at such a young age.

A disastrous war with Japan in 1905, followed by a war with Germany in 1914, led to the downfall of the Romanov dynasty and the Russian Revolution.

Tsar Nicholas II (1894-1918).
Tsar Nicholas II (1868–1918).
Tsar from 1894 to 1917.

The Tsar of all the Russias went to meet his Maker on November 1, 1894.

His 26-year-old son became Emperor of the largest country in the world.

He was the last Tsar to rule Russia.

Only MI6 knows what really happened to the Tsar and his family but a watery grave is the most likely scenario.

Empress Alexandra (1872-1918).
Empress Alexandra

The story of the murder of the Tsar and his family by "Bolsheviks" in 1918 is just disinformation....It was concocted by the same people who invented the fable of Hitler committing suicide in the Fuhrerbünker after just getting married.

The Tsar with his wife, 4 daughters and son Alexei.
The Tsar with his wife, 4 daughters
and son Alexei.

Charles Sydney Gibbes was the British secret agent at the Court of the Tsar.

As "tutor" to the Tsarevich, he arranged for the Romanovs to "escape" to Britain.

En route, their ship hit an "iceberg," or it was torpedoed by a "German" U-boat.

Charles Sydney Gibbes (1876–1963.
Charles Sydney Gibbes (1876–1963).

Together with the British ambassador, Sir George Buchanan, he arranged for the Romanovs to "escape" to Britain:

Nor was he alone in expecting to go to England. Upon abdication, Nicholas had made four requests of the Provisional Government: (1) that he be given safe conduct to Tsarskoe Selo; (2) that the family be permitted to stay there until the children were completely recovered; (3) that they be given safe conduct to Murmansk, which implied embarking for England; and (4) that they be permitted to return after the war to take up permanent residence in the Crimea, at Livadia. (Benagh, An Englishman in the Court of the Tsar, p. 148).

From Ekaterinburg, the family traveled by train to Vladivostok, guarded by general Michael Dieterich's soldiers. While en route to Britain, their ship simply "blew up." A watery grave meant no bodies as relics, and no heirs to continue the mighty Romanov dynasty.

The Siberian route was already in use at the beginning of the war to finance Russian arms purchases in Britain:

Mr Timcovsky was accompanying 979 cases of bullion, made up of roughly £4,500,000 in gold bars and £3,500,000 in gold coins. On arrival in Liverpool, he found that the armed escort was already waiting but not enough trucks were immediately available to transfer the gold to the waiting train. It was not the only hitch in the arrangements. In spite of all the secrecy Germany had become aware of what was going on and had sent mine-laying submarines to intercept the ships in the Arctic Ocean. The submarines quickly detected the two ships but their mines were only partially successful and the ships finally docked in Liverpool with only minor damage. But the lesson had been learnt. That particular route was never used again, future shipments going by way of Vladivostock, usually on British and Japanese warships to Vancouver, and finally over land to Ottawa, where the Bank of England had an emergency depository. (Clarke, The Lost Fortune of the Tsars, p. 178).

All the vast gold holdings and treasure of Imperial Russia followed the St. Petersburg-Vladivostock-Vancouver, route.

All the ships carrying the fabulous treasure made it safely to Vancouver. Gibbes later left Russia on the same British High Commission for Siberia train. The Orthodox Church fell with the fall of the Tsar. To assuage a guilty conscience for destroying Orthodoxy, Gibbes later became an Orthodox monk!!

Vladimir Lenin's Rolls Royce!!

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin's real name was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. Ulyanov had an older brother named Aleksandr, who was hanged in 1887 for his involvement in a plot to murder Tsar Alexander III.

In April 1902, Lenin and his wife Nada arrived in London from Geneva, and found lodgings at Holford Square in the home of Emma Louise Yeo.

Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924)
Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924)
circa 1900.

Lenin began his training as a "revolutionary" with the British Secret Service in April 1902.

This was just before spying came out of the closet with the creation of MI5 and MI6.

His training completed, Lenin left for Geneva in March 1903.

Lenin and his wife Nadya lodged at Holford Square, when they visited the city in 1902. Lenin and his wife Nadya lodged at Holford Square when they visited London in 1902.

Irish born spymaster William Melville introduced Lenin to escape artist Harry Houdini. Houdini's skills would be very useful to Lenin when he returned to Russia.

Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (1868 -1916).
Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin

"Mad Monk" Grigori Rasputin was a member of the Okhrana or Russian branch of the British Secret Service.

William Melville was able to gain access to Russia for Harry Houdini in 1903.

Houdini spent 5 months in Russia, doing espionage work for Melville, as he "entertained" the Russian nobility.

A lithograph of Houdini escaping
A lithograph of Houdini escaping from
a prisoners' wagon in Russia.

For the next 14 years, Lenin divided his time between Munich, Geneva, and London while the Okhrana planned the Russian Revolution.

Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924).
Vladimir Lenin circa 1917.

In April 1917, Lenin and his "Bolsheviks" arrived in St. Petersburg via a "sealed train" from Switzerland.

He became the leader of the October Revolution in 1917.

Lenin haranguing the crowd upon Lenin greeting the crowd after
his arrival in St. Petersburg.

Lenin was an admirer of all things British–especially the aristocracy....Nothing epitomized the aristocracy more than Rolls-Royce automobiles. Lenin's Rolls was a genuine "gift" from the British . . . and not a leftover from the Tsar's fleet.

Lenin loved to sit in the back of his Rolls while he planned the "peoples' revolution." If you couldn't afford a chauffeur . . . you didn't belong in a Rolls.

Lenin rode in the back while his "Comrade" Lenin was chauffeur
driven in his Rolls-Royce.

"Comrade" Lenin the "proletarian" loved to be chauffeur driven around his kingdom in his Rolls-Royce.

The Rolls would be a true "peoples' car" if every Russian owned one!!

The car is on display in the Moscow State Historical Museum in Red Square.

Lenin's Rolls-Royce on display
Lenin's Rolls-Royce on display
in a Moscow Museum.

Lenin was head of the newly formed Soviet Union until he suffered a "stroke" in 1922. He never recovered, so in 1924 he was replaced by Joseph Stalin.

Joseph Stalin the Okhrana agent!!

Joseph Stalin's real name was Iosef Dzugashvili. His mother's name was Ekaterina and his real father was an "Orthodox priest" named Koba Egnatashvili.

Stalin's birthplace in Georgia. Stalin's birthplace in Georgia.

Iosef (Soso in Georgian) Dzugashvili's real father was an "Orthodox priest" named Koba Egnatashvili.

In reality, Koba was an Okhrana agent.

His mother's name was Ekaterina (Keke) Dzugashvili.

Ekaterina Dzugashvili
Ekaterina Dzugashvili

Stalin was physically deformed when he was born. One arm was shorter than the other and the second and third toes on his left foot were fused together. There are many cases in the Bible of women having sex with demons and producing monstrosities like Goliath of Gath. In the village where Stalin was born many people believed that he was illegitimate:

There is no evidence to suggest that Vissarion thought Soso was a dragon, but his behavior toward Soso suggests that he hated his son a lot for another reason. The family's neighbors believed that Vissarion suspected Keke of infidelity and doubted that Soso was his son. The rumor was that Vissarion hated Soso because he suspected him of being a bastard child. The neighbors long remembered Vissarion's brutal beatings of the boy. (Brackman, The Secret File of Joseph Stalin, pp. 3-4).

Ultimately, Satan himself was the father of the monster Joseph Stalin.

Georgia was an outpost of the British Empire and the place was crawling with Okhrana agents. When he was 16, Stalin's real father obtained a place for him at the Tiflis Theological "Seminary."

Joseph Stalin (1878–1953) aged 16.
Joseph Stalin (1878–1953) aged 16.

Georgia was an outpost of the British Empire and the place was crawling with Okhrana agents.

The Tiflis Theological "Seminary" was their HQ.

In 1894, when Stalin was 16, Koba Egnatashvili enrolled him at the "seminary" for training as an Okhrana agent.

Tiflis Theological Seminary was the Okhrana HQ in Georgia. . Tiflis Theological "Seminary" was
the Okhrana HQ in Georgia.

Stalin never graduated formally from the "seminary." He was expelled for "reasons unknown" in 1899. In the 5 years at the "seminary," he learned all the tricks of the spying trade that enabled him to become a brutal dictator of the Soviet Union.

To establish his identity as a counter-revolutionary, Stalin was arrested several times by the Okhrana. The mug shots were taken in 1911, and the Eremin letter was written at the same time.

Stalin's mug shots taken in 1911.
Stalin's mug shots taken in 1911.

To establish his identity as a "Bolshevik," Stalin was arrested several times by the Okhrana.

The Soviets referred to the Okhrana as the "Tsar's Dreaded Secret Police."

Only one genuine document remains linking Stalin with the Okhrana. It is called the "Eremin letter."

The infamous Eremin letter naming Stalin as an Okhrana agent.
The genuine Eremin letter naming Stalin as an Okhrana agent.

All during his infamous career as dictator of the Soviet Union, Stalin was paranoid that he would be exposed as an Okhrana agent.

In 1937, he had a copy of the Eremin letter forged, with some major mistakes, that he hoped would discredit the letter. Joseph Vissarionovich Djugashvili did not use the pen name "Stalin" in 1911, and Okhrana agents were not known by their nom-de-plumes. Here is the text of the "revised" letter in English:


Joseph Vissarionovich Djugashvili–Stalin–who has been administratively exiled to the Turukhansk Territory, upon his arrest in 1906 gave the Chief of the Tifíis State Gendarmerie Administration valuable denunciatory information.
In 1908 the Chief of the Baku Okhrana Section received from Stalin a series of intelligence reports, and afterwards, upon Stalin's arrival in Petersburg, Stalin became an agent of the Petersburg Okhrana Section.
The work of Stalin was distinguished by accuracy, but was fragmentary.
After Stalin's election to the Central Committee of the Party in Prague, Stalin, upon his return to Petersburg, went over into open opposition to the Government and completely discontinued his connection with the Okhrana.
I am informing you, dear sir, about the above for your personal considerations in the conduct of your secret-service work.
With assurances of my fullest respect,


The only document extant linking him to the Okhrana is in the Okhrana archive at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University, California.

Like his fellow spy Hitler in Germany, Stalin was raised to the status of a divine being or demigod. All opposition to his rule was ruthlessly crushed. Famines, purges. collectivization, etc., etc., led to the deaths of countless millions. In 1941, he signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler which led to WWII. It was only the Serbs delaying Hitler's invasion of Russia that saved that country from complete annihilation.

Stalin lying-in-state after his death. Stalin lying-in-state after his death.

Stalin went to meet his Maker on March 5, 1953.

He was succeeded by another British Secret Service agent named Nikita Khrushchev.

Funeral procession for Stalin Funeral procession for
Stalin in Red Square.

Stalin's funeral in Red Square was another vast propaganda production by the "Communists." Anybody who didn't "mourn" the death of this spy was likely to be arrested and shot by the KGB. Stalin was succeeded by fellow secret agent Nikita Khrushchev.

Khrushchev gave away Crimea in 1954

Nikita Krushchev wa born on April 15, 1894, in the southern Russian village of Kalinovka, close to the present-day border between Ukraine and Russia. When he was 14 he joined a British mining company in Donetsk, Ukraine.

Donetsk was founded in 1869 when a British businessman named John Hughes built a steel plant and several coal mines in the southern part of the Russian Empire at Aleksandrovka. As part of the British Empire, the town initially was given the name Hughesovka.

In 1918, he became a "political commissar" in the Red Army which is just another name for spy.

Stalin and Khrushchev were fellow spies.
Stalin and Khrushchev
were fellow spies.

In 1937, Stalin appointed Khrushchev head of the Ukranian "Communist" Party.

In 1944, he tried to give Crimea to Ukraine.

In 1958, Khrushchev said that "soon we will show the last priest on TV." Of course, he meant a Russian Orthodox priest!!

Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
"Soviet" dictator from '53 to '64.

Here is a brief excerpt from a 2003 biography of Nikita Khrushchev:

A decade before Khrushchev extracted the Crimea from Russia and benevolently presented it to Ukraine (thus ensuring trouble between the two after the collapse of the USSR in 1991), he tried to pull off the same trick in 1944. What gave him an opening was the Crimea's need for Ukrainian peasants to replace the Crimean Tatars Stalin had forcibly exiled from the area. When he was in Moscow, he told a Ukrainian colleague later that year, he said "Ukraine is in ruins, but everybody wants something from it. Now what if it received the Crimea in return?"(Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, p 186).

When Khrushchev became head of the Soviet Union, he "gifted" Crimea to Ukraine. The transfer merited only a paragraph in Pravda, the official Soviet newspaper, on Feb. 27, 1954. The story was one long sentence and dense with detail. Here's what it said:

Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet transferring Crimea Province from the Russian Republic to the Ukraine Republic, taking into account the integral character of the economy, the territorial proximity and the close economic ties between Crimea Province and the Ukraine Republic, and approving the joint presentation of the Presidium of the Russian Republic Supreme Soviet and the Presidium of the Ukraine Republic Supreme Soviet on the transfer of Crimea Province from the Russian Republic to the Ukraine Republic.

And without the Crimeans having any say in the matter, a region that had been part of Russia for centuries became part of Ukraine!

One of the oldest tricks in spying is for someone to "defect" to the enemy. That spy gives valuable information, but it is never of any real substance . . . just enough to gain the trust of the other side....Once accepted as a genuine turncoat, that spy can then serve the cause of his real masters.

Such an operative is called a disinformation agent.

Edward Snowden
Edward Snowden
(b. 1983).

Edward Snowden "defected" to Russia in May 2013.

He did provide valuable information about the UKUSA Agreement or Five Eyes universal spying . . . but he never mentioned anything about the U.S. and Russian branches of the British Secret Service.

Snowden also forgot to mention that Hitler's daughter was Chancellor of Germany.

President Vladimir Putin
President Vladimir Putin
(b. 1952).

For over 1000 years, Old Rome fought vainly against New Rome or Constantinople. Old Rome called the East-West split the "Great Schism." In reality, it is the Latins who are the schismatics because of the 4 Deadly Errors of the Latins.

When New Rome fell to the Terrible Turks on May 29, 1453, the Orthodox Church moved to Russia and Moscow became known as the 3rd Rome. Moscow now became the target of Old Rome. As early as the time of Queen Elizabeth I, the British Secret Service had their agents at the Court of Tsar Ivan I.

When President Lincoln saved the Union in 1865, a new strategy was adopted to use the vast power and wealth of the United States against the Russian Orthodox Church. Thus the British Secret Service came out of the closet and opened up branches in the United States and Russia.

The Exodus is a marvelous type of Armageddon and the end of the world. When the Egyptians were pursuing the children of Israel at the Red Sea, JEHOVAH sent his MECHANIC-ANGELS to pull off the wheels of their chariots–in order to slow them down:

And it came to pass, that in the morning watch that JEHOVAH looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians, and took off their chariot wheels, that they drove them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, "let us flee from the face of Israel; for JEHOVAH fighteth for them against the Egyptians" (Exodus:14:24-25).

In these last days . . . we cannot stop the Vatican and NATO's mad attempt to end what they call the "Great Schism" but we can slow them down . . . so all true Christians should become MECHANICS for CHRIST!!

Vital links


Brackman, Roman, The Secret File of Joseph Stalin. Frank Cass Publishers, London & Portland, OR, 2001.

Benagh, Christine, An Englishman in the Court of the Tsar. Conciliar Press, Ben Lomond, California, 2000.

Cook, Andrew. M: MI5's First Spymaster. Tempus Publishing Group, Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK, 2004. (A biography of William Melville).

Clarke, William. The Lost Fortune of the Tsars. St. Martin's Press, New York, 1994.

Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia: A Biography of Empress Marie Feodorovna.

Hingley, Ronald. The Russian Secret Police: Muscovite, Imperial Russian, and Soviet Political Security Operations. Simon & Schuster, New York, 1970.

Kalush, William& Sloman, Harry. The Secret Life of Houdini: The Making of America's First Superhero. Simon & Schuster, New York, 2006

Lowe, Charles. Alexander III of Russia. William Heinemann, London, 1895.

Levine Isaac Don, Stalin's Great Secret. Coward-McCann, Inc., New York, 1956.

Magocsi, Paul Robert. A History of Ukraine. University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1996.

Rappaport, Helen, Conspirator: Lenin in Exile. Perseus Book Group, New York, 2010.

Radzinsky, Edvard. Alexander II: The Last Great Tsar; Simon & Schuster, New York, 2005.

McNeal,Shay. The Secret Plot to Save the Tsar: New Truths Behind the Romanov Mystery. HarperCollins, New York, 2002.

Smith, Edward Ellis, The Young Stalin: The Early Years of an Elusive Revolutionary. Farrar, Straus & Giroux, New York, 1967.

Summers, Anthony. The File on the Tsar. Harper & Row, New York, 1976.

Taubman, William. Khrushchev: The Man and His Era. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 2003.

Copyright © 2014 by Patrick Scrivener

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