The history of the era beginning with the Avignon Popes is so complicated that it would require a super computer to keep track of all the Popes that reigned during those dark days. At one time there were actually 3 "Holy Fathers," all calling each other "Antipope," and exercising their Christian charity by throwing thunderbolts at each other!!




Gail, Marzieh. The Three Popes: An Account of the Great Western Schism When Rival Popes Vied for Power. Simon & Schuster, New York, 1960.

Go to the Spanish Papal Dynasty