The Jewish Messiah warned us to beware of the deeds and doctrine of the Nicolaitanes:

And unto the angel of the Congregation in Pergamos write: you have them which hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitanes, which things I hate (Apocalypse 2:6, 2:15).

The Nicolaitanes were a heretical sect who loved to have the preeminence, and lord it over other Christians in the Congregation!

Pope Nicholas I (800867).
Pope from 858 to 867.

The burning issue at the pontificate of Nicholas I was the Filioque addition to the Nicene Creed.

The foremost opponent of that innovation was the Patriarch of Constantinople named Saint Photius.

That addition to the creed claimed that the Holy Spirit proceeded from the Father . . . and the Son.


Saint Photius the Great

One of the foremost opponents of this novel doctrine was Saint Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople. He wrote a brilliant thesis refuting Augustine of Hippo and his Filioque.

Constantinople was always under attack by the Muslims who denied the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

Pope Nicholas II (990–1061).
Pope from 1059 to 1061.

In 1059, Pope Nicholas II deposed Pope Benedict X.

That means that Pope Benedict is now considered an "Antipope."

The Greek word anti means a counterfeit or substitute . . . as in "Antichrist."


Pope Benedict X
Pope from April 1058 to Jan. 1059.

Benedict was deposed in 1059, but, unusual for that time, he was not immediately sent to St. Peter. He languished in prison until he went to meet his Maker sometime between 1073 and 1080. He was succeeded by Pope Nicholas II—who was definitely not a Santa Claus.

In preparation for the Babylonian Captivity of Britannia in 1066, Pope Nicholas forged a closer alliance with the Vikings/Normans in Sicily.

Pope Nicholas III (12251280).
Pope from 1277 to 1280.

As the year 1260 approached, the writings of Joachim of Fiore were all the rage.

In 1196, Joachim wrote a massive commentary on the Apocalypse entitled Expositio in Apocalipsim.

Before he became pontiff, Pope Nicholas III did his utmost to bring about the fulfillment of that "prophecy," so he was deeply disappointed that it didn't happen in 1260.


Joachim of Fiore

When the prophecy did not come to pass in 1260, the monks had another date. They calculated that the starting point should be when the Messiah was 30-years-old. Additionally, the number 1290 is mentioned in the Book of Daniel (Daniel 12:11)

Pope Nicholas IV (1227–1292).
Pope from 1288 to 1292.

1290 was the second date for the fulfillment of the "prophecy" of Joachim of Fiore.

Pope Nicholas IV was a Franciscan monk who hoped to bring about its fulfillment at the second date.

After the brief pontificate of Pope Celestine V, he was succeeded by Pope Boniface VIII.


Pope Boniface VIII (1230
Pope from 1294 to 1303.

When Europe did not become Muslin in 1290, Pope Nicholas was very, very disappointed. The last date that the monks anticipated its fulfillment was 1335.

As a capstone on the gigantic pyramid of error that began with Pope Julius I. Pope Boniface VIII issued a Bull which declared that every human being on the earth was subject to the Papal monarch:

Furthermore, we declare, we proclaim, we define that it is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff. (Unum Sanctum, November 18, 1302).

Islam united was capable of conquering the world, but Islam was a house divided between Sunni and Shia. It is beyond belief how that pontiff was going to conjure up the armies to make his outrageous claim a reality!

Pope Nicholas V (1397–1455).
Pope from 1447 to 1455.

The Fall of Constantinople to the Terrible Turks occurred on May 29, 1453.

Pope Nicholas V rejoiced that the HQ of the Orthodox Church was finally destroyed, and his main rival eliminated!

The Fall of Constantinople sent shock waves throughout Western Europe as walls no longer protected cities.

Gunpowder cannon breached the walls
allowing the Terrible Turks to pour in.

Nicholas V was succeeded by Pope Callixtus III, who was a scion of the infamous House of Borgia. The Fall of Constantinople was also a political shock wave as the old order in Europe came to an end!

King Alphonso V of Portugal.
Misruled from 1438 to 1481.

In 1455, Pope Nicholas V issued a Bull donating Africa to King Alphonso V of Portugal.

However, the rising Spanish Empire was challenging Portuguese maritime hegemony.

King Alphonso appealed to Pope Callixtus to issue another Bull confirming Portugal's right to Africa . . . and India!


Pope Callixtus III (1378–1458).
Pope from 1455 to 1458

That was the reason why Portuguese Christopher Columbus called the New World natives Indians because he claimed them for the Portuguese New World Empire!

Vital Links

Portuguese Christopher Columbus



Bown, Stephen R. 1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half. St. Martin's Press, New York, 2012.

Norwich, John Julius. Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy. Random House, New York, 2011.

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